Mechanical ventilation is a method used when the patient’s spontaneous breathing is absent or ineffective for life. It is the most widely used supportive technique in intensive care units. The purpose of the mechanical ventilation is to assist or replace spontaneous breathing.
From the beginning, simplicity and good performance have been the most recognizable features of our Mechanical Ventilators.
Inspired by the patient and designed for the physician, Neumovent’s Mechanical Ventilators guarantee effective and safe, comprehensive noninvasive and invasive ventilation.
Three patient categories (adult, pediatric and neonatal) and a wide variety of modes, grant our mechanical ventilators the ability to adapt to all types of situations.
High-efficiency pneumatic systems coupled with reliable electronics and sophisticated software make the Neumovent Mechanical Ventilators highly reliable elements within your Intensive Care Unit.
Over 40 years of dedication and research into ventilators have resulted in products that are the pride of our company and that we are sure will also be the pride of your department.
Mechanical Ventilators types
Mechanical ventilators can be invasive or non-invasive. Invasive mechanical ventilators is when a tracheostomy or endotracheal tube extends into the patient’s throat. Non-invasive ventilators is when a mask covers the patient’s mouth and nose or just the nose.
Non-invasive mechanical ventilators is incorporated into the routine care of patients with respiratory failure. It may also be successful in some patients with rapidly reversible pathological conditions. However, when it is necessary to apply elevated pressure air to ensure satisfactory gas exchange and in situations where non-invasive ventilation is considered inappropriate or failed, endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation is required.
Use of Mechanical Ventilators
Mechanical ventilators may be necessary to achieve adequate ventilation and put to rest the respiratory muscles. It may also be necessary to correct hypoxemia and lung volume loss. Sometimes when spontaneous ventilation is an excessive demand on a compromised cardiovascular system, mechanical ventilator is required.
Physiological Objectives of mechanical ventilators
The primary physiological objectives of the mechanical ventilators are the followings:
- To improve gas exchange, both normalize alveolar ventilation and arterial oxygenation.
- To maintain/restore the lung volume and modify the pressure/volume relationship.
- Mechanical ventilators expands the lungs to prevent or treat atelectasis and improves oxygenation and lung compliance.
- To achieve and maintain an increased FRC (Functional Residual Capacity).
- To reduce or manipulate the work of breathing. That is to say, to decrease the burden of the muscles as well as to reverse the respiratory muscle fatigue.
- To improve tissue oxygenation. Improved tissue oxygenation increases the availability of oxygen in the arterial blood and allows redistribution of oxygen supply to vital parenchyma.
Operating Modes of Mechanical Ventilators
A mode of ventilation is the manner in which a ventilator achieves the objective of the mechanical ventilators, which is to assist or replace spontaneous breathing without harming the patient.
The operating modes of the mechanical ventilators are patterns that are programmed into the software that commands the ventilators. Usually, these patterns correspond to definitions of forms that can take the ventilatory cycle provided by a ventilator. The patterns can be identified by specifying the primary breath control variable and the breath sequence, the control type, and specific control strategy.
Neumovent’s Mechanical Ventilators offer the following operating modes:
- VCV – Volume Control (Assisted/Controlled).
- PCV – Pressure Control (Assisted/Controlled).
- PSV – Pressure Support.
- CPAP – Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.
- SIMV (VCV) + PSV.
- SIMV (PCV) + PSV.
- APRV – Airway Pressure Release Ventilation.
- PRVC – Pressure Regulated Volume Control.
- NIV – Non-Invasive Ventilation.
- TCPL – Time Cycled Pressure Limited.
- SIMV (TCPL) + PSV.
- CPAP with Continuous Flow (with leak compensation for NIV).
Mechanical Ventilators history
The concept of mechanical ventilation originated in 1543 when the first experimental application using a reed inserted into the tracheas of dogs. The following centuries were full of research in negative pressure mechanism and new prototypes were created.
It was not until 1928 when the earliest negative pressure breathing machine used for long-term ventilation was introduced and was known as an “iron lung.” This negative pressure ventilator enclosed all of the patient’s body except the head forcing the lungs to inhale and exhale through regulated changes in air pressure. The air inside the chamber was removed, creating low air pressure around the patient’s chest allowing the lungs to expand. The patients of the iron lung were polio sufferers with chest paralysis.
During the Second World War, positive pressure ventilators were developed to supply oxygen to combat pilots in high altitude. Endotracheal tubes with high volume/low pressure cuffs were developed. Positive pressure ventilators were less bulky than negative pressure devices.
The use of positive pressure ventilators rose during the polio epidemic in the 1950s. These ventilators use positive pressure pumping air into the lungs through a face mask or a tube in the throat.
Positive pressure mechanical ventilators marked the beginning of modern ventilation therapy and have become essential tools within surgery and intensive-care medicine.